APOLLO 8 was the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit and explore a different heavenly body, our moon. Astronaut's Frank Borman, James Lovell and Bill Anders made the first circumlunar flight and took the first photos of Earth from orbit around the moon 238,000 miles away. These astronauts were the first humans to see the entire Earth from space. As the world waited and watched for a spectacular message from our astronauts, they each read part of the following message as the world watched on December 25, 1968:
"In the beginning God created the heavens and the Earth. And the earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep: and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters. Then God said, "Let there be light," and there was light. And God saw that the light was good, and God separated the light from the darkness. And God called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And there was evening and there was morning , the first day. Then God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters and let it separate the water from the water." So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. An it was so. God called the expanse "sky." And there was evening and morning the second day. And God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear. "And it was so. God called the dry ground "land" and the gathered waters he called "seas." And God saw that it was good." "Genesis 1-10." The astronauts felt these passages written three thousand years ago best described what they were seeing from their unique vantage point further from Earth than any humans had ever traveled. Now NASA is talking about engineering a Martian atmosphere.
SANDUSKY COUNTY -- The Fremont News-Messenger carried a UFO sighting story located just south of the Lake Erie shore. On July 7, 1999, Terry Fox saw a round metallic object in the sky along East Ohio Highway 101 near the town of Clyde at 10:30 PM. It moved back and forth, right to left and back over a period of some 45 minutes. Terry used binoculars to determine that the UFO had "six lights or windows with stripes or bars on the windows." There were also "unexplained red lights near the ground." Kenny Young points out that numerous UFO sightings have been reported in the same area since March 11, and the known sightings were called into the police by concerned residents. Thanks to Kenny Young firstname.lastname@example.org, See http://home.fuse.net/ufo/ for further details.
LAKE MILACS -- William McNeff reports a witness had three separate UFO sightings over the 4th of July weekend. While working the late shift on July 3, 1999, near Barnacle Bill's the witness and several friends saw a point source of light, whitish-orange in color. It looked like a satellite was moving slowly toward the north, when it changed direction toward the west. It underwent two accelerations, then began to move around the sky making loops past the Big Dipper. The object emitted four strobe lights "out the back." It was moving at such a high speed that" it could have gone from horizon to horizon in two seconds." It made 90 degree turns and hovered at times from 11:30 PM until dawn. On July 4, a glowing orange sphere was in and out of sight all night. The witness and his neighbor estimated that it came to within 100 feet, but was partly obscured by a row of trees that were 65 feet away. This close approach only lasted for a second at about 3:45 AM. The witnesses ran around the trees to try to catch sight of the object, but it disappeared. The object was estimated to be 5 feet in diameter with sharp edges. At times it moved up into the clouds and illuminated them.
SAINT PAUL - On July 5, 1999, the witness was leaving for work at 9:50 PM when he again caught sight of the objects on the East side of the city. They were metallic or gray spheres that got whiter as they watched. There was an unnatural haze around the objects. They were slowly gained altitude when a plane flew above the sphere. The spheres continued "hovering below the plane." Their size was somewhat smaller than the full moon. He watched them for two minutes, then got his roommate to watch. They drove to his parents house and called them out to see the wildly moving objects. Thanks to W. McNeff email@example.com
YUKON -- S. Ritter writes that on July 10,1999, my husband, our two youngest children and I went out to stargaze. We were 2.5 miles northwest of Yukon on Foreman Road at 11:00 PM. We saw two interesting objects. First we saw a satellite move across the night sky. After observing further, we noticed that this so-called satellite was not traveling at a constant rate of speed. I would accelerate and then slow down. It was traveling in a south to north direction. It was the size of a BB held up at arm's length. We watched for at least 5 minutes, then it disappeared. Forty minutes later two Bb's size lights moved south in a straight line. They were about one foot apart from each other at arm's length. Thanks to S. Ritter Bbbritter
A committee from the Association of Former Junior Officials from the French Institute for Higher Defense Studies [IHEDN] has released a report claiming UFOs are real and funds should be appropriated for further research. Two years of private hearings were held with military personnel. The title is "UFOs and Defense" --"What can we do to prepare?" The title infers the UFOs present a security problem to the nation. It contains a preface by French Air Force General Bernard Norlain, the former director. The report does not have official status, but is signed by the association of former executives of IHEDN. It may be unofficial to keep the US and UK governments from protesting. The report is 90 pages long and has been sent to the highest political leaders. Researcher Bob Durant says, "I think these names and titles alone say it all." Chapters: 1. Testimony of French pilots, 2. Worldwide UFO sightings by pilots, 3. Sightings from ground observers, 4. Close encounters in France, 5. Examples of explained cases, 6. Organization of UFO research in France, 7. Methods and results of GEPAN and SEPRA, 8. Hypotheses for UFOs, tests and modeling, 9. Organization of international research, 10. Strategic prospects, 11. Aeronautical implications, 12. Scientific and technical implications, 13. Political and religious implications, 14. Public relations implications. Appendices: 1. Radar detection in France, 2. Observations by astronomers, 3. Life in the universe, 4. The colonization of space, 5. The Roswell Incident - disinformation, 6. History of the UFO phenomenon, 7. Remarks about various psychological, sociological and political aspects of the UFO phenomenon. The report was published in a magazine called VDS on July 17. The document recommends an intensification of UFO investigations by SEPRA, France's official UFO investigative organization headed by scientist Jean-Jacques Velesco. To some the report is disappointing because it fails to mention 1989 Belgian sightings. However, sections covered military sightings at Lakenheath, Teheran and the US. It also backs Lt. Co. Phillip Corso's statements. Thanks to Bob Durant and Perry Petrakis.
GIZA -- John and Mariola Carlo just returned from their studies in Egypt as layperson Egyptologists. John called to tell me that last month they saw
lights over the desert on several occasions that perked their interest in
UFOs. John spoke with some Nazlet El Sammon Bedouins who regularly see the
UFO lights. These people are very superstitious and are afraid of the
lights. They told John about a possible landing site and to keep their
distance because the lights are thought to be black magic. During their most
recent visit the Carlo's saw UFOs during a Light and Sound show at Saquarra.
The craft were flying north towards the Pyramids at Giza. They came into
view south of Menkaure and zipped quickly across the sky. John and Mariola
saw them three times but they moved too fast to get a videotape of their
movements. They seem to hover over the area just south of Giza. This fit
with the stories they had heard. So they drove to the desert about a mile
south of the Cheops Pyramid and found dark blue burnt areas the size of two
football fields. The sand had turned to glass apparently due to extreme heat
possibly from the UFO propulsion systems. They gathered blue rocks and sand
from inside the apparent landing area. Many of the circles were 4 to 5 feet
in diameter. The circles were symmetrical and showed a pattern that could be
the tripods of large craft. We hope to have the rocks analyzed. Thanks to
John and Mariola Carlo
See photos at: http://www.contrailconnection.com/njmufon, (Worldwide Sightings)
CAPE HAWKE, FOSTER -- Steven Gammage, his wife, sister, mother and father observed a disc shaped object moving very fast from the north moving south on July 10, 1999. The disc was seen north of Newcastle, New South Wales at 6:00 PM from an elevated viewing platform. Steve and his father were looking at Venus to the northwest that was very bright. Suddenly low down on the horizon a fast moving disc stopped and hovered at an increased elevation. This object was followed by another similar object but less bright. The colors were red-orange. The second object moved to a position over the first object and they both hovered together. At this point the rest of the family came out to view the objects and Steve brought out his reflector Telescope (114mm diameter and 900mm). He was able to view the first bright object and noted that it was disc shaped with a row of white lights across the middle of the disc. The disc was rotating but not so fast that he could not pick out the individual lights. He & his family watched the two objects for about 5 minutes. Both objects then shot off north at very high speeds and disappeared. About half an hour later a single object similar to the first two appeared from the north, hovered and then disappeared north again. Thanks to Peter Turner and Diane Harrison(UFO Research NSW)
BUNDABERG, QUEENSLAND -- Further north along the coast, Ross Dowe of the Australian National UFO Reporting Center writes, a witness reported a daylight sighting of a domed disc on July 14, 1999. The witness wrote: "Myself and two others observed what appeared to be a disc hovering in the sky at 10:15 AM. It quickly became apparent to us that it was not a plane. As we watched, the object slowly began to glow very brightly, so bright that it seemed to grow to about 4 times its original size, then returned to 'normal' in about 2 to 3 seconds. This glowing was repeated every 4 to-5 seconds for the duration of the event. First, a small glow was followed by a bright one alternately, making the object appear to be slowly pulsating. "I would estimate the object to have been 1-1/2 to 2 miles away, judging by the level of atmospheric distortion. It was about the size of two jumbo jets viewed at the same distance. "As we watched, the object slowly began to move away until it was about a quarter its original size. It then abruptly disappeared. The whole sequence took about 3 to 4 minutes. The object appeared to my eye as being about the size of a 5 cent piece held at arm's length, slowly getting smaller as it moved away. The object was disc shaped with a slight bulge at the center top and bottom. It had a metallic in color, no visible wings or means of propulsion, nor vapor trails. It was silent, and hovered for at least two minutes before moving at all. This was like nothing I have ever seen." Thanks to Ross Dowe (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The new Starshine satellite is reminiscent of a 1970's disco ball and twinkles as it travels through space. It can be seen by observers on the ground with the naked eye. Starshine is an educational satellite that has a series of mirrors that reflect the suns rays. The project's director is Gil Moore of Utah State University who claims the satellite will remain in orbit until at least January of 2000. The 19 inch satellite flashes as it moves along its path. Its covered with 878 small, circular mirrors that were polished by school children. More than 25,000 students around the world will track the beautiful sparkling satellite over the next 7 months that help will determine the density of the atmosphere. The satellite was launched June 6, 1999, and is likely to cause some UFO reports. Thanks to Evelyn Gaulson.
Ron Regehr and Phil Klass have provided arguments to last weeks article. Both these gentleman are distinguished engineers with knowledge of our satellites that can provide the final proof for or against UFOs. Phil Klass' comments are in lower case while Ron Regehr's comments are [UPPER CASE AND IN BRACKETS] Phil writes, "This is in response to Ron Regehr's criticism of the item in the July issue of my Skeptics UFO Newsletter (SUN #58) about the Defense Support Satellite (DSP). Because Regehr formerly was employed by Aerojet's ElectroSystems division, which produces the sensor subsystem for our DSP satellites, his knowledge of its latest design should be superior to mine.[THANK YOU, PHIL.] Regehr challenges the accuracy of SUN's statement that "most of DSP's infrared sensors look down from its 22,000 mile high altitude." Regehr states that "all of the DSP infrared sensors look down..." (Emphasis added.) My information came from a report prepared by Aerojet Electrosystems, titled "DSP Sensor Evolutionary Development," which stated that 5,568 of DSP's infrared sensors "looked" below the horizon, i.e., toward the Earth, while 768 of the infrared sensors looked above the horizon, i.e., out into space. The report said that this system was designed to replace the sensor system "presently in operation" on DSP satellites
[INTERESTING. PHIL PROBABLY DOES NOT KNOW IT WAS I WHO WROTE THAT REPORT MANY YEARS AGO WHEN AEROJET WAS BRIEFING USAF "BLUE SHIRTS" ON THEIR NEW SYSTEM—SENSOR EVOLUTIONARY DESIGN, OR SED FOR SHORT. THE SED–SERIES OF SENSORS, FOR THE FIRST TIME, INCLUDED A FEW DETECTORS DESIGNED TO DETECT EVENTS IMMEDIATELY OVER THE HORIZON, UNLIKE THE CURRENT DETECTOR ARRAY WHICH DETECTED EVENTS RIGHT UP TO THE HORIZON. BECAUSE OF AEROJET'S DESIRE NOT TO OPEN UP DSP FOR COMPETITIVE BIDS, WE MARKETED AN "EVOLUTIONARY" DESIGN IN LIEU OF A "REVOLUTIONARY" DESIGN; HENCE THE TERM "SENSOR EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT" OR "SED" AS IT WAS KNOWN INTERNALLY. I MUST NOT HAVE DONE TOO GOOD A JOB DESCRIBING THE "NEW" ARRAY, WHICH WAS CONTIGUOUS TO THE BASIC ARRAY BUT CONTAINED FAR FEWER DETECTORS, HAVING DIFFERENT SENSITIVITIES AND A SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT "FREQUENCY." HOWEVER, LET ME ASSURE THE READERS THAT THE ATH (ABOVE-THE-HORIZON) ARRAY DID LOOK DOWN--NOT UP, NOT SIDEWAYS, NOT ASKEW, AND NOT CROSS-EYED,—BUT DOWN. FROM GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT, THE DIFFERENCE IN LOOK ANGLE BETWEEN THE "HORIZON-EVENT" DETECTORS AND THE ATH DETECTORS IS MOOT—THEY’RE VIRTUALLY IDENTICAL. ONE OTHER DIFFERENCE IS THEIR "CENTER FREQUENCY." BRIEFLY, THE DETECTOR ARRAY STARTS WITH THE SLOWEST FREQUENCY DETECTORS AT ONE END OF THE ARRAY; THE "PIVOT POINT" IF YOU WILL, ABOUT WHICH THE ENTIRE ARRAY REVOLVES. (WE HAVE A REVOLVING ARRAY, NOT A STARING ARRAY). WHY A SLOW FREQUENCY? IMAGINE A GROUP OF SOLDIERS, MARCHING IN A WHEEL. THE CENTER-MOST SOLDIER WOULD HARDLY MOVE AT ALL, WHEREAS THE OUTER-MOST SOLDIER WOULD BE AT A NEAR RUN, WITH THE INTERMEDIATE SOLDIERS INCREASING THEIR SPEED FROM "HUB TO RIM." NOW EXTRAPOLATE THAT TO THE DETECTOR ARRAY. THE INNERMOST (NADIR) DETECTORS "MARCH" VERY SLOWLY, WHEREAS THE OUTERMOST ARE "MARCHING" MUCH FASTER. WHEN WE ADDED ANOTHER ROW ABOVE THOSE DESIGNED TO DETECT HORIZON EVENTS (HENCE THE TERM, "ABOVE THE HORIZON") WE HAD TO INCREASE THEIR FREQUENCY EVEN MORE. THE MISTAKE KLASS MAKES IS TO CHARACTERIZE THEM AS LOOKING "OUT INTO SPACE." IN FACT, THEY POINT VIRTUALLY STRAIGHT DOWN AS DO ALL THE OTHER DETECTORS ON THE ARRAY.]
DSP satellites originally were developed to detect the launch of long-range ballistic missiles (ICBMs). More recently their mission has expanded to detect the launch of shorter-range SCUD-type missiles, such as those launched by Iraq against Israel during the Desert Storm conflict.
[WHEREAS IT IS TRUE THE PRIMARY USAF DESIGN REQUIREMENT WAS THE DETECTION OF ICBM LAUNCHES, USAF TEAM MEMBERS AND AEROJET DESIGNERS WORKED DILIGENTLY FROM THE EARLIEST PRELIMINARY DESIGN STAGES TO ENSURE THE DETECTOR DESIGN WOULD BE AS SENSITIVE AS POSSIBLE. AS IT TURNS OUT, WE (FORTUNATELY FOR THE GROUND POUNDERS) MADE THEM SUFFICIENTLY SENSITIVE TO DETECT MANY TARGETS OF SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER INTENSITY. THE FACT THAT WE DETECTED EVERY LOW-INTENSITY SCUD LAUNCH DURING THE GULF WAR IS TESTIMONY TO THAT REMARKABLE EFFORT ALMOST A QUARTER CENTURY AGO.]
The portion of the infrared spectrum in which rocket engines emit their most intense infared [SIC] radiation depends on the type of fuel used. Liquid-fueled missiles radiate their most intense infrared energy at wavelengths of about 2.4 to 2.8 microns. In this band, the IR radiation from surface and near-surface objects is heavily attenuated by the earth's atmosphere--with attenuation decreasing with target's altitude.
[ KLASS IS PARTIALLY CORRECT, BUT FOR THE WRONG REASON. ASK YOURSELF, WHY WOULD WE RESTRICT DESIGN TO LIQUID-FUELED MISSILES? ALL THE ADVERSARY WOULD NEED IS TO EQUIP THEIR FLEET WITH SOLIDS AND WE WOULD BE "BLIND." NO, KLASS, WE PICKED THAT PORTION OF THE BANDWIDTH BECAUSE OF THE INCREASED ATMOSPHERIC TRANSMISSION OF IR—NOT THE LEAST! KLASS IS CORRECT IN HIS STATEMENT ABOUT ATTENUATION DECREASING WITH TARGET’S ALTITUDE. THE MORE ALTITUDE THE TARGET GAINS, THE LESS ATMOSPHERIC ATTENUATION. JUST AS ONE CAN LOOK AT THE SETTING SUN AND NOT BE BLINDED BECAUSE OF THE INCREASED ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY, ANY TARGET SIGNATURE IS ATTENUATED BY ATMOSPHERE. HOWEVER, AS I STATED EARLIER, THE SENSITIVITY BANDWIDTH WAS CHOSEN BECAUSE IT WAS MORE TRANSPARENT TO IR THAN OTHER PORTIONS OF THE SPECTRUM--JUST THE OPPOSITE OF KLASS' CLAIM.]
In the early days of DSP--before the availability of high-speed computers on a microchip--atmospheric attenuation was considered a benefit because it helped filter out spurious/false targets, [SIC] such as oil well fires and low-flying jet aircraft. In the quarter-century since DSP was developed, there have been major advances not only in microchip computers but also in infrared sensors. These have been incorporated into DSP to enable it to better detect targets of interest and discriminate them from spurious objects, such as meteor-fireballs and space debris.
[AEROJET DESIGNERS STROVE--FROM THE ONSET--TO MAKE THE DSP DETECTOR ARRAY AS SENSITIVE AS POSSIBLE. TARGET CHARACTERISTIC/IDENTIFICATION WAS/AND IS, A TASK RESERVED TO THE SOFTWARE (I ALSO WROTE THOSE SPECIFICATIONS). FROM THE OUTSET WE USED IBM 360/75 MAINFRAME COMPUTERS, LATER SWITCHING TO IBM 3033N8 PROCESSORS. HOWEVER THE SOFTWARE EVOLVED TO FACILITATE TARGET CHARACTERIZATION. THE ONLY "ON BOARD" PROCESSING IS TO INCREASE THE SPEED OF THE SEVERELY LIMITED DOWNLINK--NOT TO FILTER OUT OR DISCRIMINATE TARGETS--AGAIN, THESE FEATURES ARE STILL THE DOMAIN OF THE GROUND-BASED SOFTWARE. THE ON-BOARD DETECTORS ARE VIRTUALLY UNCHANGED--IF ANYTHING, THE "NEW" MERCURY-CADMIUM-TELLURIDE DETECTORS ARE EVEN MORE SENSITIVE, AND AGAIN, HAVE NO "ON-BOARD" PROCESSING CAPABILITY.]
In Regehr's recent comments in Filer's Files, he challenged my statement that if DSP's infrared sensors are to be able to detect ET craft, that their propulsion systems would need to operate at "high temperatures." But in Regehr's own 1998 report, titled "How To Build a $125 Million UFO Detector," he wrote: "Infrared detectors should be quite capable of detecting UFOs, as long as either the UFO's hull temperature or [engine] exhaust is hot enough." (Emphasis added.)
[GEEZ, I WISH I HAD A WAY TO "EMPHASIS ADD." THERE IS A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "HOT ENOUGH" AND "HIGH TEMPERATURES" AS I AM CERTAIN KLASS REALIZES. THE FIRST, HOT ENOUGH, IS A RELATIVE TERM, DEPENDING UPON MANY VARIABLES. IN MY BOOK, I OFFER MATHEMATICAL PROOF THE DSP WAS CAPABLE OF DETECTING THE IRANIAN UFO. IN OTHER WORDS, IT WAS "HOT ENOUGH" TO BE DETECTED. DID ITS PROPULSION SYSTEM OPERATE AT "HIGH TEMPERATURES" AS KLASS’ SCENARIO DEMANDS? WHO KNOWS. I DO KNOW IT WAS "HOT ENOUGH" BECAUSE WE DETECTED IT. IF KLASS KNOWS SOMETHING ABOUT THE ET CRAFT’S PROPULSION SYSTEM.]
In this same Regehr report, he claimed that the National Security Agency (NSA) "is certainly involved in the study of UFOs, for two reasons: military security and abductions. Hence I [Regehr] believe that, "NSA was created for the express purpose of monitoring UFO activity and of citizens who may have been involved (either directly or indirectly) in the phenomenon." Regehr's claim is sharply challenged by Tom Deuley, long-time Ufologist. Deuley spent several years working at NSA. In his paper presented at MUFON's conference in Washington D.C. in 1987, Deuley said that although he had reported his UFO interests and activities to NSA officials when employed there, he had never seen any indication of NSA's interest in UFOs.
[EVER HEAR OF "COMPARTMENTALIZATION"? I'LL WAGER DEULEY WOULD NOT CLAIM HE WAS PRIVY TO ALL NSA ACTIVITIES.]
Thanks to RON REGEHR and Phil Klass for an interesting discussion of satellite data on UFOs.
VIRTUAL REALITY -- Skywatch International and UfoChat.com have joined forces, and want to announce a new Virtual UFO Community with Online conferences, Panels, Lectures, Research Groups, etc. formed by members working as teams and overseen by expert researchers in real time visual environments. The UFOCHAT.COM will open July 22nd, with special guest Derrel Sims. July 29th with Jim Hickman, and August 4th, with George Filer.
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Filer's Files Copyright 1999 by George A. Filer, all rights reserved. Readers may post items from the Files on their Websites provided that they credit the newsletter and its editor by name and list the date of issue that the item appeared.
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