Searching for the Truth
(Always Telling the Truth Means Never Having to Remember Anything)
Pyramids Missing Capstone
As one who had 33+ years in Civil Engineering doing Quality Control and Quality Assurance of materials used to build highways and bridge structures with the Texas Department of Transportation, and 3 years prior to that with an Army Engineering Battalion, the pyramids of Giza have always been fascinating to me. When asked to join the Great Pyramids of Giza Advisory Board in 2001, a door was opened for me to research the pyramids more.
As a Christian I have searched the Bible for references to the Pyramids to no avail, as there appears to be no reference to them. To my knowledge the word pyramid does not appear in the Bible. I suppose other structures mentioned in the Bible could be referring to pyramids by a different name or description. Surely the pyramids would have existed during the time of Moses and while the Israelites were held captive in Egypt before the Exodus. Many researchers believe the three Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx existed long before that time period, and are in fact older than the Egyptian civilization. Of the other 80 or 90 pyramids located in Egypt, I believe they were built by Egyptians, however when examined, they are poor replicas of the three on the Giza plateau.
The structural facts about the great pyramid are particularly mind-blowing to anyone with an engineering background, and could not be duplicated today with similar tools used back then, over the time period recorded, and the number of laborers required. In a previous editorial I calculated a stone would have had to be set every 90 seconds, which would have been mathematically impossible.
Casing stone still in place at the bottom of the pyramid
The height of the great pyramid is 481', the base is 775 ¾' on each side, the incline on each side is exactly 51 degrees 50', and the weight of the various stones are 2 to 70 tons each. The different types of stones used were limestone, basalt and granite. The polished limestone casing stones that once covered the great pyramid were removed by the Arabs to build mosques and temples, leaving approximately 2 million stones still comprising the pyramid today. The casing stones were cut in quarries from Tura and Masara, located on the east bank of the Nile. They had to be quarried and shaped, loaded on barges, brought up the Nile River (which years ago flooded until the Aswan Dam was built), then transported across the Giza plateau to the site of the pyramids.
These hard stones were probably used for one reason---to stand the test of time, which the Great Pyramid has done remarkably well, being the only one of the 7 ancient wonders of the world still remaining. The mortar used is of unknown origin. It has been analyzed and its chemical composition is known but cannot be reproduced. It is stronger than the stone and still holding up today.
Of all the pyramids, the Great Pyramid is the only one with "air shafts". Would a dead Pharaoh have needed air for the afterlife? And as a matter of historical fact, nothing was ever found in the Great Pyramid to indicate a Pharaoh was ever buried inside, as Egyptologists claim, which has never been proven since nothing for the afterlife was ever found inside. The King's chamber has 2 air shafts, about 5" in diameter which connect to the exterior of the pyramid, at angles of 45 degrees facing south and 32.36 degrees facing north. From the Queen's chamber, air shafts do not penetrate to the exterior, and are at angles of 39.36 degrees to the south and 39.7 degrees to the North.
All 4 sides of the Great Pyramid are slightly concave, and it's the only pyramid built this way. The precision of those four sides is not visible from the ground or from a distance, but only from the air, requiring proper lighting to notice.
Having stated a few of the structural facts above about the great pyramid, I can now discuss the title of this article and ask the question, "why is there no capstone on top of the Great Pyramid?"
Some researchers believe the capstone may have always been absent, however, when one considers the technology and accuracy required to build the pyramid, as I briefly explained above, it seems odd that it would not have been completed with a capstone.
One theory for the missing capstone is that it may have been made of gold and looted sometime in the distant past. To remove it would have been a difficult undertaking since the capstone would have been very large, as the flat top of the pyramid is about 30 feet in each direction. There was a mast or flagpole located on the summit, placed there by two astronomers in 1874, to show where the actual apex would have been had there been a capstone.
A theory I like is that if the capstone was made of metal, it would have absorbed the sun's energy, making the pyramid like turning a key to a machine. With a golden capstone and the polished limestone that once covered the pyramid, it would have been visible from space. If in fact the pyramid was designed as a machine back then, that machine could possibly not work today without the capstone in place.
On December 16, 1999, the Egyptian government cancelled plans to cap the pyramid with a gold capstone by lowering it with a helicopter, for the millennium celebrations. One reason given for canceling it was the fear of terrorists attempting to shoot down the helicopter and possibly causing damage to the pyramid.
If the pyramid was a machine, we don't know what it's original function was, or if in fact it would still work these thousands of years later. Was the pyramid part of an energy grid, and was the capstone removed to prevent further destruction? Perhaps we should leave the pyramid without a capstone on top, until we can determine what its original purpose was.
So, like many of the other mysteries of this world, we with all our high tech education and knowledge really know very little about the ancient past. Not only is the missing capstone a mystery, but depending whom you speak to, the pyramids themselves are a mystery pertaining to who built them, why they were built, and where they were built.
Dennis G. Balthaser